How to Bet Proposition Bets at a Sportsbook by RJ Bell

What will be the exact margin of victory

What team will win the coin toss

What player will score the game’s first touchdown

“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does.

For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked). The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered. For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line.

As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event. In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them.

It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas . Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds). So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!

Matchup Betting

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll.

An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts.

Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them. . An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor. A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders. For example, you can bet on:

For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner.

Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360.

Contributed by:

Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers.

Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360.

Betting to Win

Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere.

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals

Play Casino And Poker Online

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for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. . Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. Customer retention is with you. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.

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The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler.

casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.

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Expert Betting Tips For Sports Betting Good Results

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How to Bet Proposition Bets at a Sportsbook by RJ Bell

Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action.

Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball.

Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them. For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity. Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds).

It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line. A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360.

What team will win the coin toss

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place.

Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!

Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere.

“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title. For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked).

Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered.

Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines. An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor.

An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll. . These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals. Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas .

Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers.

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

Matchup Betting

For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner. For example, you can bet on:

What player will score the game’s first touchdown

Betting to Win

Contributed by:

What will be the exact margin of victory

As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports. In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them

10 Steps You Can Take To Stop Gambling Today

Gamblers Anonymous is one. Carrying recovery reading & phone numbers help.

STEP 9: HAVE A PLAN IN PLACE FOR YOUR NEXT URGE

When your next urge comes, what will you do? You’ll need to know the answer to this. A gambling problem is very strong, plays many tricks on on our minds, & tries to convince us of many lies. Know what to do & who to call if a thought or urges to gamble hits you….(and unfortunately they will).

STEP 10: GET 1 ON 1 SUPPORT.

Stopping Gambling isn’t easy. There are therapists, counselors, & life coaches out there trained to help you stop. Carry only a very small budget for food each day and thats it.( absolutely no more than $5). Inpatient Treatment is another. If needed, list them out. Combat this with the previous 9 steps & a one on one coach, sponsor, or therapist. (because it is the truth).

STEP 7: REMIND YOURSELF WHY YOU’RE STOPPING, & FOR WHO.

Make a list of the people you love & love you back. If you gamble online, get gamblock today.

STEP 5: CARRY RESOURCES WITH YOU AT ALL TIMES

Get or print off pro gambling recovery literature & carry it with you at all times.

Read it daily, especially in first months. You make lifelong friends who will always understand and care.

This step can be done by attending Gamblers Anonymous, Celebrate Recovery, & finding online support and help. Good help seems to come from ex-gamblers themselves because they’ve been there, & they understand. If you want to stop starting right now, block all access to money. It may sound funny, but joining a group of fellow recovering gamblers gives you strength & power over your gambling. There are 1000’s of people who once were severely addicted to gambling, haven’t gambled for months and even years.

STEP 3: JOIN A COMMUNITY OF RECOVERING GAMBLERS

Recovering in numbers is key. This includes credit cards, debit cards, access to bank accounts, checks, loans, etc. Have phone numbers listed for people to call who support you in your recovery. You help yourself and others triumph over a common enemy. Know that there are 1000’s of recovering gamblers. The only time casinos won’t let you gamble, is when you don’t have what they want……money.

STEP 8: STAY HOPEFUL

Only those who never give up on themselves & their program of recovery beat gambling. He is an author, life coach, sponsor, & former GA chapter president, husband, & stepfather.

There is but one good throw upon the dice, which is, to throw them away. (Email the author at jason@livegamblefree.com for online communities you can join today). In the beginning the constant thoughts and urges to gamble can be intense. He’s overcome his own addiction to gambling & has helped many others do the same. Connect your gambling with the the negative consequences its brought into your life.

STEP 4: SUBMIT YOURSELF TO A PROGRAM OF RECOVERY

What does this mean exactly? It means you must submit,commit, & trust in the program of recovery you choose. Put up pictures of them & when you see it, remember that’s who you’re stopping for.

Recognize that if you gamble, you’re letting them down.

Remind yourself of all the bad things that have been caused by your obsession to gamble. Call them ANYTIME you need to. -Author Unknown.

To learn the secrets to stopping gambling now, & to get 1 on 1 coaching from Jason visit http://www.livegamblefree.com or email Jason at jason@livegamblefree.com

By Jason Coleman, Certified Professional Life Coach

Average:

Your rating: None Average: 3 (3 votes)

STEP 2: GET HELP TODAY

To overcome something as powerful as a gambling problem or addiction, we must get help from others.

Help is out there in many forms. In the moment, you’ll want a plan of action to take when the urge to gamble attempts to overwhelm you.

Jason is a recovered compulsive gambler of over 5 years and a certified professional life coach. Its best to find someone who’s been in your shoes, but hasn’t gambled in quite some time.

Make sure you like them, they have your best interest in mind, & truly do help you.

These 10 steps are an excellent start to stopping gambling today.

If you have any unanswered questions or need to be pointed in the right direction email jason@livegamblefree.com

Author’s Bio: 

When you absolutely must stop gambling right now, here are 10 steps you can take today.. Know that if they can do it, you can too. You trust that the program will solve your gambling problem, as long as you never give up on it.

STEP 6: BAN YOURSELF FROM GAMBLING (ONLINE AND OFF)

If you go to a local casino, take a caring friend and ban yourself for life.

If you play online, contact the online casino and have your account closed permanently, & demand to be banned from their site. Don’t know where to turn to for help? Email jason@livegamblefree.com

STEP 1: GET RID OF YOUR MONEY

If you want to stop gambling right now, the first step begins by stopping to carry money

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

1952-1953).

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Less Than Zero

From a front-line perspective

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Update note:Dr. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . It was so unusual at the time . Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

But, it doesn’t end there. 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

The Road to Zero

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Ground Zero

Gateway to the West

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

False Positive

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Omega Man

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

Mr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

This makes little sense. 

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Louis. 

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

AIDS now had a face.

***

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . . .  

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Air Canada

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Dr.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr

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PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational

That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.

T-13. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.

Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.

1. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1

Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.

6. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each

Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1

T-19. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).

At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each

Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson.

The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each

5. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.

Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds

Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Nuff said. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each

2. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.

Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. Adam Scott – 11 to 1

Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.

Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1

T-7. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.

At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. He’s a big threat this week to win.

Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1

T-11. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.

Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds

Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.

David Toms won this tournament in 2011. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1

4. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each

T-17. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.

Notables

3. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.

The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.

Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!

Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.

Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson

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Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

My study suggests that’s not the case.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

In that spirit. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. None of them work.

Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60’s and 70’s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface